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Personalausweis uk

personalausweis uk

Die British Transport Police gibt hilfreiche Tipps gegen Taschendiebe. Vorläufiger Personalausweis: Ja Vorläufiger Personalausweis: Nein. Sie brauchen allerdings kein Visum und können sich für eine unbegrenzte Zeit in England aufhalten. Der Pass oder Personalausweis muss für die Dauer des. Ausweispflicht bezeichnet in weiterem Sinne die Pflicht einer natürlichen Person, einen . Connexions Card, Validate UK) mit einem einheitlichen PASS- Hologramm, die als Altersnachweis für den Erwerb altersbeschränkter Produkte dienen.

To get a bank ID card either a Nordic passport or another passport together with Norwegian residence and work permit is needed.

There is an ongoing plan to introduce a national ID card accrediting Norwegian citizenship, usable for travel within the EU, and for general identification.

The plan started in and has been delayed several times and is now expected in Polish citizens living permanently abroad are entitled, but not required, to have one.

All Portuguese citizens are required by law to obtain an Identity Card as they turn 6 years of age.

They are not required to carry with them always but are obligated to present them to the lawful authorities if requested.

The old format of the cards yellow laminated paper document featured a portrait of the bearer, their fingerprint, and the name of parent s , among other information.

The CI offers proof of the identity, address, sex and other data of the possessor. It has to be renewed every 10 years.

It can be used instead of a passport for travel inside the European Union and several other countries outside the EU. Its validity extends for up to 1 year.

It cannot be used in order to travel within the EU, unlike the normal ID card. However, these are accepted only in limited circumstances and cannot take the place of the ID Card in most cases.

The ID Card is mandatory for dealing with government institutions, banks or currency exchange shops. A valid passport may also be accepted, but usually only for foreigners.

In addition, citizens can be expected to provide the personal identification number CNP in many circumstances; purposes range from simple unique identification and internal book-keeping for example when drawing up the papers for the warranty of purchased goods to being asked for identification by the police.

Presenting the ID Card is preferred but not mandatory when asked by police officers; however, in such cases people are expected to provide a CNP or alternate means of identification which can be checked on the spot via radio if needed.

The information on the ID Card is required to be kept updated by the owner; current address of domicile in particular.

Doing otherwise can expose the citizen to certain fines or be denied service by those institutions that require a valid, up to date Card.

In spite of this, it is common for people to let the information lapse or go around with expired ID Cards. The Slovak ID card Slovak: It is issued to citizens of the Slovak Republic who are 15 or older.

For travel outside the EU, Slovak citizens may also require a passport , which is a legally accepted form of picture ID as well.

Police officers and some [ who? If one fails to comply, law enforcement officers are allowed to insist on personal identification at the police station.

Every Slovenian citizen regardless of age has the right to acquire an Identity Card Slovene: Osebna izkaznica where every citizen of the Republic of Slovenia of 18 years of age or older is obliged by law to acquire one and carry it at all times or any other Identity document with a picture i.

With exception of the Faroe Islands and Greenland, though it may be used to travel outside of the EU: The front side displays the name and surname, sex, nationality, date of birth and expiration date of the card, as well as the number of the ID card a black and white photograph and a signature.

Depending on the holders age and sometimes also other factors , the card had a validity of 5 years or 10 years, and 1 year for foreigners living in Slovenia.

In Slovenia the ID cards importance is equaled only by the Slovenian passport , but a due to size a lot more practical. In Spain citizens, resident foreigners and companies have similar but distinct identity numbers, some with prefix letters, all with a check-code [69].

This number is the same for tax, social security and all legal purposes. Without this number or a foreign equivalent such as a passport number a contract may not be enforceable.

In Spain the formal identity number on an ID card is the most important piece of identification. It is used in all public and private transactions.

It is required to open a bank account, to sign a contract, to have state insurance and to register at a university and should be shown when being fined by a police officer.

The card also constitutes a valid travel document within the European Union. However a NIE is issued for life and does not change and can be used for the same purposes.

Sweden does not have a legal statute for compulsory identity documents. These include but are not limited to banking and age verification.

Without Swedish identity documents difficulties can occur accessing health care services, receiving prescription medications and getting salaries or grants.

From , EU passports have been accepted for these services due to EU legislation with exceptions including banking , but non-EU passports are not accepted.

Identity cards have therefore become an important part of everyday life. There are currently three public authorities that issue ID-cards.

The tax office Skatteverket , the Police and the transport board. The tax office cards can only be used within Sweden to validate a persons identity, but they can be obtained both by Swedish citizens and those that currently reside in Sweden.

A Swedish personal identity number is required. It is possible to get one without having any Swedish id-card. In this case a person holding such a card must guarantee the identity, and the person must be a verifiable relative or the boss at the company the person has been working or a few other verifiable people.

The Police can only issue identity documents to Swedish citizens. They issue an internationally recognised id-card according to EU standard usable for intra- European travel, and Swedish passports which are acceptable as identity documents worldwide.

The Transport board issues driving licences which are valid as identity documents in Sweden. To obtain one, one must be approved as a driver and strictly have another Swedish identity document as proof of identity.

In the past there have been certain groups that have experienced problems obtaining valid identification documents. Since July , the tax office has begun to issue identity cards and this has simplified the identity validation process for foreign passport holders.

Swiss citizens have no obligation of identification in Switzerland and thus, are not required by law to be able to show a valid identity document upon request by a police officer or similar official.

Furthermore, identity documents are required when opening a bank account or when dealing with public administration. Swiss passport [78] is needed only for e.

Identity cards were first proposed in the mids for people attending football matches, following a series of high-profile hooliganism incidents involving English football fans.

However, this proposed identity card scheme never went ahead as Lord Taylor of Gosforth ruled it out as "unworkable" in the Taylor Report of The UK Labour government progressively introduced compulsory identity cards for non-EU residents in Britain starting late After the general election a new government was formed, comprising a coalition between two parties that had pledged to scrap ID cards — the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats — and the Home Office announced that the national identity register had been destroyed on 10 February Identity cards for British nationals were introduced in on a voluntary basis.

Only workers in certain high-security professions, such as airport workers, were required to have an identity card, and this general lack of ID being compulsory tends to remain the case today.

Driving licences , particularly the photocard driving licence introduced in , and passports are now the most widely used ID documents in the United Kingdom, but the former cannot be used as travel documents, except within the Common Travel Area.

However, driving licences from the UK and other EU countries are usually accepted within other EEA countries for identity verification.

Given that passports do not fit in a typical wallet or purse , most people do not carry their passports in public without an advance that they are going to need them.

Colloquially, in day-to-day life, most authorities do not ask for identification from individuals in a sudden, spot check type manner, such as by police or security guards, although this may become a concern in instances of stop and search.

There are also various PASS -accredited cards, used mainly for proof-of-age purposes, but they are not very commonly carried other than by those aged in their late teens or early twenties who do not drive and frequently purchase age-restricted goods [ citation needed ].

Belarus has combined the international passport and the internal passport into one document which is compulsory from age It follows the international passport convention but has extra pages for domestic use.

Bosnia and Herzegovina allows every person over the age of 15 to apply for an ID card, and all citizens over the age of 18 must have the national ID card with them at all times.

A penalty is issued if the citizen does not have the acquired ID card on them or if the citizen refuses to show proof of identification. The Macedonian identity card Macedonian: The document is issued by the police on behalf of the Ministry of Interior.

Every person over 18 can get and must get an identity card. In Moldova Identity Cards Romanian: Buletin de identitate are being issued since The first person to get identity card was former president of Moldova — Mircea Snegur.

Since then all the Moldovan citizens are required to have and use it inside the country. State company "Registru" is responsible for issuing Identity cards and for storing data of all Moldovan citizens.

It can be used for international travel to Bosnia and Herzegovina , Serbia , Macedonia , Kosovo and Albania instead of the passport.

Internal passports are issued by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs to all citizens who reach their 14th birthday and do not reside outside Russia.

They are re-issued at the age 20 and The internal passport is commonly considered the only acceptable ID document in governmental offices, banks, while traveling by train or plane, getting a subscription service, etc.

If the person does not have an internal passport i. Kosovo issues its own identity cards. These documents are accepted by Serbia when used as identification while crossing the Serbia-Kosovo border.

The Ukrainian identity card or Passport of the Citizen of Ukraine also known as the Internal passport or Passport Card is an identity document issued to citizens of Ukraine.

Every Ukrainian citizen aged 14 [86] or above and permanently residing in Ukraine must possess an identity card issued by local authorities of the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

Ukrainian identity cards are valid for 10 years or 4 years, if issued for citizens aged 14 but less than 18 and afterwards must be exchanged for a new document.

The Turkish national ID card Turkish: Cards for males and females have a different color. The front shows the first and last name of the holder, first name of legal ascendant s , birth date and place, and an 11 digit ID number.

The back shows marital status, religious affiliation, the region of the county of origin, and the date of issue of the card.

On February 2, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in a 6 to 1 vote that the religious affiliation section of the Turkish identity card violated articles 6, 9, and 12 of the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Turkey is a signatory.

The ruling should coerce the Turkish government to completely omit religious affiliation on future identity cards. The Turkish police are allowed to ask any person to show ID, and refusing to comply may lead to arrest.

It can be used for international travel to Northern Cyprus , Georgia and Ukraine instead of a passport. Ministry of Interior of Turkey has released EU-like identity cards for all Turkish citizens starting from New identity cards are fully and can be used as a bank card, bus ticket or at international trips.

In Canada, different forms of identification documentation are used, but there is no de jure national identity card.

The Canadian passport is issued by the federal national government, and the provinces and territories issue various documents which can be used for identification purposes.

The widespread usage of these two documents for identification purposes has made them de facto identity cards. The bearer is required by law to keep the address up to date.

For travel abroad, a passport is almost always required. There are a few minor exceptions to this rule; required documentation to travel among North American countries is subject to the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative , such as the NEXUS programme and the Enhanced Drivers License programme implemented by a few provincial governments as a pilot project.

These programmes have not yet gained widespread acceptance, and the Canadian passport remains the most useful and widely accepted international travel document.

Every Costa Rican citizen must carry an identity card immediately after turning Each card has a unique number composed of nine numerical digits, the first of them being the province where the citizen was born with other significance in special cases such as granted citizenship to foreigners, adopted persons or in rare cases with old people where no birth certificate was processed at birth ; after this digit, two blocks of four digits follow; the combination corresponds to the unique identifier of the citizen.

It is widely requested as part of every legal and financial purpose, often requested at payment with credit or debit cards for identification guarantee and requested for buying alcoholic beverages or cigarettes or upon entrance to adults-only places like bars.

The card must be renewed every ten years and is freely issued again if lost. On the back, there is again the identification number, birth date, where the citizen issues its vote for national elections or referendums, birthplace, gender, date when it must be renewed and a matrix code that includes all this information and even a digitized fingerprint of the thumb and index finger.

A passport is also issued with the same identification number used in the ID card. The same situation occurs with the Social Security number; it is the same number used for the ID card.

This National ID card is issued to all legal residents of adult age. It is issued free of charge [90] by the "Junta Central Electoral" Central Voting Committee to all Dominicans not living abroad at the time of reaching adulthood 16 years of age or younger is they are legally emancipated.

Foreigners that have taken permanent residence and have not yet applied for Dominican naturalization i. Every citizen above 18 years must carry this ID for identification purposes at any time.

It is not based on a smartcard but on a standard plastic card with two-dimensional bar-coded information with picture and signature.

It is based on a smartcard with a chip and includes an electronic signature and several measures against fraud. Not mandatory, but needed in almost all official documents, the CURP is the standardized version of an identity document.

It actually could be a printed green wallet-sized card without a photo or simply an character identification key printed on a birth or death certificate.

Also, minors must produce their CURP when applying for a passport or being registered at Public Health services by their parent s. Most adults need the CURP code too, since it is required for almost all governmental paperwork like tax filings and passport applications.

To have a CURP issued for a person, a birth certificate or similar proof must be presented to the issuing authorities to prove that the information supplied on the application is true.

Foreign-born Mexican naturalized citizens must present their naturalization certificate. On February 13, the Mexican government designated the state of Tamaulipas to start procedures for issuing a pilot program of the national Mexican ID card [ citation needed ].

There is no compulsory federal-level ID card issued to all US citizens. US citizens and nationals may obtain passports or US passport cards if they chose to, but the alternatives described below are more popular.

In addition, many schools issue student and teacher ID cards. Federal agencies would reject licenses or identity cards that do not comply, which would force Americans accessing everything from airplanes to national parks and courthouses to have the federally mandated cards.

At airports, those not having compliant licenses or cards would simply be redirected to a secondary screening location.

The bill takes place as governments are growing more interested in implanting technology in ID cards to make them smarter and more secure. In , the U.

Seventeen states, however, have passed statutes opposing or refusing to implement the Real ID Act. The United States passport verifies both personal identity and citizenship, but is not mandatory for citizens to possess within the country and is issued by the US State Department on a discretionary basis.

Since February 1, , U. TSA regulations list the passport card as an acceptable identity document at airport security checkpoints.

Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U. A child born in the US is in nearly all cases except for children of foreign diplomats automatically a US citizen.

They have become the de facto national identification number for federal and state taxation, private financial services, and identification with various companies.

SSNs do not establish citizenship because they can also be issued to permanent residents as well as citizens. Identity and citizenship is established by presenting a passport alone, but this must be accompanied by a Social Security card for taxation ID purposes.

In this case, an applicant without a passport may sign an affidavit of citizenship or be required to present a birth certificate.

They must still also submit their Social Security number. Utility bills or other pieces of official printed mail can also suffice for this purpose.

In the case of voting, citizenship must also be proven with a passport, birth certificate, or signed citizenship affidavit.

Ownership of property, proved by a deed , also immediately confers residency in most cases. A Social Security number does not prove any form of residency, and neither does a passport, as neither of these documents is tied to a specific jurisdiction apart from the US as a whole, and a person can be issued either of these without living in the US such as being born abroad to American citizen parent s.

Thus, "residency in the US" is not clearly defined, and determining this often depends on the particular administrative process at hand. The Selective Service System has in the past, in times of a military draft, issued something close to a National ID Card, only for men that were eligible for the draft.

Australia does not have a national identity card. Currently, driver licences and photo cards , both issued by the states and territories , are the most widely used personal identification documents in Australia.

Photo cards are also called "Proof of Age Cards" or similar and can be issued to people as another type of identity. Identification indicating age is commonly required to purchase alcohol and tobacco and to enter nightclubs and gambling venues.

Other important identity documents include a passport, an official birth certificate, an official marriage certificate, cards issued by government agencies typically social security cards , some cards issued by commercial organisations e.

Often, some combination of identity documents is required, such as an identity document linking a name, photograph and signature typically photo-ID in the form of a driver licence or passport , evidence of operating in the community, and evidence of a current residential address.

New alcohol laws in the state of Queensland require some Brisbane-based pubs and bars to scan ID documents against a database of people who should be denied alcohol, for which foreign passports and driver licences are not valid.

Legal forms of identification are used mainly for buying alcohol and cigarettes where the purchaser looks younger than 25 and entry to nightclubs.

They can also be required for the purchase of spray paint and glues, and for some government and bank transactions. Firearms licences are a form of photo identification issued by the New Zealand Police.

They are produced at a special plant by the Argentine national registry of people ReNaPer. The cards are needed to obtain a job, to vote, and to use credit cards.

Foreigners living in Brazil have a different kind of ID card. Every resident of Colombia over the age of 14 is issued an identity card Tarjeta de Identidad.

ID cards must be carried at all times and must be presented to the police upon request. Failure to produce ID is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine.

It contains the full name, gender, nationality, date of birth, photograph of the data subject, right thumb print, ID number, and personal signature.

This is the only official form of identification for residents in Chile and is widely used and accepted as such. Biometrics collection is mandatory.

In Peru , it is mandatory for all citizens over the age of 18, whether born inside or outside the territory of the Republic, to obtain a National Identity Document Documento Nacional de Identidad.

The DNI is a public, personal and untransferable document. The DNI is the only means of identification permitted for participating in any civil, legal, commercial, administrative, and judicial acts.

It is also required for voting and must be presented to authorities upon request. For Peruvians abroad, service is provided through the Consulates of Peru, in accordance with Articles 26, 31 and 8 of Law No.

Three dates are listed as well; the date the citizen was first registered at RENIEC; the date the document was issued; and the expiration date of the document.

Eight voting record blocks are successively covered with metallic labels when the citizen presents themselves at their voting group on voting days. Identity Card Renewal [].

It is mandatory and essential for several steps at either governmental or private. The document is mandatory for all inhabitants of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, are native citizens, legal citizens or resident aliens in the country, even for children from 45 days old.

On the reverse appears nationality, date of birth, date of issuing the document and the date it is due usually 10 years after the date of issue, even if issued after 70 years of age, lifetime and for the children is valid for five years.

There is also the right thumbprint and observations if any. Identity cards are demanded widespread in all formal transactions, from credit card purchases to any identity validation, proof of age, and so on.

Not to be confused with the civic badge, which is used exclusively for voting in elections elections and plebiscites. Another simple way to look at it as a scalar product of vectors in module The first 7 digits of the card can be viewed as a vector of length 7.

This vector is multiplied by the vector scalar obtaining a number N The check digit is found to be N module It also contains the documents expedition and expiration date.

Two different prefixes can be found before the ID number: Despite Venezuela being the second country in the Americas after the United States to adopt a biometric passport , the current Venezuelan ID document is remarkably low-security, even for regional standards.

It can hardly be called a card. The paper inside the laminated cover contains only two security measures, first, it is a special type of government-issued paper, and second, it has microfilaments in the paper that glow in the presence of UV light.

The laminated cover itself is very simplistic and quite large for the paper it covers and the photo, although is standard sized 3x3. Government officials in charge of issuing the document openly recommend each individual to cut the excess plastic off and re-laminate the document in order to protect it from bending.

The requirements for getting a Venezuelan identity document are quite relaxed and Venezuela lacks high-security in its birth certificates and other documents that give claim to citizenship.

It resembles the analogous card that has been in place in the Venezuelan biometric passports since However, the release of this new card to the public has been delayed on several occasions and as of October there are no news as to when it will be available.

Media related to Identity documents at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Document which may be used to identify a person.

For cards referred to in the English language as "national identity card", see National identity card disambiguation. For films with this name, see Identity Card disambiguation.

This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings.

List of identity card policies by country. South African identity card. Bangladeshi national identity card. Hong Kong Identity Card.

Identity documents of India. Macau Resident Identity Card. Computerised National Identity Card. National Registration Identity Card. South Korean identity card.

National identity card Sri Lanka. National Identification Card Taiwan. Thai national ID card. Belgian national identity card.

Czech national identity card. French national identity card. Gibraltar identity card and History of nationality in Gibraltar. Italian electronic identity card.

Dutch identity card and Dutch passport. Polish National Identity Card. Identity documents in Sweden. Swiss identity card and Swiss passport.

Identity Cards Act Identity Documents Act Internal passport of Russia. Identity documents in the United States. Identity documents of Australia.

Documento Nacional de Identidad Argentina. The World of William Notman. Retrieved 31 December A History of the Australian Passport.

Archived from the original on The powerful DNA profiling technology is encouraged to be used by parent s when adopting newborn children. Insurance companies use DNA profiling as a precautionary tool to protect against life insurance fraud.

Lawyers are bundling these services with packages, such as the Last Will and Testament , to assist in protecting the assets of large estates. Caslon Analytics research, analysis and strategies consultancy.

Archived from the original on January 26, As a German policeman once said, you are who your papers say you are.

Take away those papers and you have no identity. The area of the DNA molecule used for identification testing is known as a non-coding region.

This region gives absolutely no genetic information about your race, medical history, or pre-disposition to a disease.

DNA is the ultimate tool for personal identification. Every individual has a unique set of DNA markers, which are inherited from their parent s.

Therefore, your loved one can be easily identified by their specific DNA profile. DNA Profiling is highly recommended by Law Enforcement Agencies nationwide as an identification method for all of your family.

Acquiring a DNA Profile for your loved one is easy, painless, affordable, and need only be performed once, since his or her profile will not change over time.

The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century Paperback. When the technology was first introduced, scientists, lawyers, and civil libertarians argued over whether the underlying science was sound, and if the technology actually worked.

Today, DNA identification is widely accepted as absolutely accurate—and we are struggling with the social implications of this newfound precision.

Nye pass og nasjonale ID-kort kommer 1. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain , which lies in the North Atlantic , and includes over smaller islands , such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries.

England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world.

However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the north for example, the Lake District and Pennines and in the west for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills.

The capital is London , which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. The Kingdom of England — which after included Wales — ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May , when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain.

The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland , which means "land of the Angles ". The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria.

The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus , Germania , in which the Latin word Anglii is used. An alternative name for England is Albion.

The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus , specifically the 4th-century BC De Mundo: In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion and Ierne ".

Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor , dating to approximately , years ago.

By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture people made bronze , and later iron from iron ores.

The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs , advancing agriculture for instance, with Celtic fields , as well as the production of more effective weapons.

Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans.

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius , subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire as Britannia province.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. According to Bede , missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church.

There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea , while others claim through Lucius of Britain.

This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles , Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country.

Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain is consequently subject to considerable disagreement.

Roman-dominated Christianity had, in general, disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from onwards.

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria , Mercia , Wessex , East Anglia , Essex , Kent and Sussex.

Over the following centuries, this process of political consolidation continued. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia.

Wessex under Alfred the Great was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors, it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw.

A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in and again by his son Cnut in , turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea Empire that also included Denmark and Norway.

However, the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor in A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in , accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy.

Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage.

The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century [53] and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the Tudor period , the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England.

In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.

Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke.

The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship.

During the Elizabethan period , England was at war with Spain. An armada sailed from Spain in as part of a wider plan to invade England and re-establish a Catholic monarchy.

The plan was thwarted by bad coordination, stormy weather and successful harrying attacks by an English fleet under Lord Howard of Effingham.

This failure did not end the threat: Spain launched two further armadas, in and , but both were driven back by storms. The political structure of the island changed in , when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which had been a long-time rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I , thereby creating a personal union.

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively.

This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland and Ireland. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth.

Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell declared himself Lord Protector in ; a period of personal rule followed. After the Glorious Revolution of , it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power.

This was established with the Bill of Rights in Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament.

In the Great Fire of London gutted the City of London but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards [71] with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren.

In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons.

After the parliaments of England and Scotland agreed, [72] the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain in Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire.

Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution , a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development.

During the Napoleonic Wars , Napoleon planned to invade from the south-east. However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington.

The Napoleonic Wars fostered a concept of Britishness and a united national British people , shared with the Scots and Welsh.

London became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire — as well as the standing of the British military and navy — was prestigious.

Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz. Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England in the midth century.

Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles , but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent.

Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system.

Today England is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom , although other countries of the United Kingdom have devolved governments.

In the United Kingdom general election, , the Conservative Party won seats the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative , more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority.

As the United Kingdom is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom — Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland and Wales are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters.

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law [] legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries [] and the United States except Louisiana.

Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales continued, under the Treaty of Union , as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland.

The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent — stare decisis — to the facts before them.

It was created in after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords. The subdivisions of England consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government.

The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England: These were created in as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in the regional government offices were abolished.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight.

London accepted in However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England devolution referendums, in the North East, further referendums were cancelled.

Below the regional level, all of England is divided into 48 ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils.

Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council.

They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities.

Greater London has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London Corporation.

Geographically England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly.

It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom: England is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain.

The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of uplands dividing east and west, the Lake District mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England and Scotland.

The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire and Derbyshire.

They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire Dales and the Peak District. In the West Country , Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs ; where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover.

England has a temperate maritime climate: The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month.

Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Important influences on the climate of England are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean , its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream.

The Greater London Built-up Area is by far the largest urban area in England [] and one of the busiest cities in the world.

It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom besides England itself.

While many cities in England are quite large, such as Birmingham , Sheffield , Manchester, Liverpool , Leeds , Newcastle , Bradford , Nottingham , population size is not a prerequisite for city status.

England is a leader in the chemical [] and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry.

Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since it has been a state-owned institution. England is highly industrialised, but since the s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy.

The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley , crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30, engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors.

With a workforce of over 12, people, Derby has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK.

Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins , the first secretary of the Royal Society , in As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution , England was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel , best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering.

With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton business partner of James Watt is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history.

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics , and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity.

The Department for Transport is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England , and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England from London to Newcastle [] much of this section is motorway and onward to the Scottish border.

The red double-decker buses in London have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge.

These lines are mostly standard gauge single , double or quadruple track though there are also a few narrow gauge lines. There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in England has extensive domestic and international aviation links.

The National Health Service NHS is the publicly funded healthcare system in England responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country.

It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge.

The average life expectancy of people in England is The English people are a British people. In , when the Domesday Book was compiled, England had a population of two million.

Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the s: England contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling.

During the English Renaissance , many words were coined from Latin and Greek origins. English language learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing.

There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, [] but English is the only language used for official business.

As well as English, England has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh. Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, [] [] and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.

When the modern border between Wales and England was established by the Laws in Wales Acts and , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border.

Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century, [] and by natives of parts of western Shropshire until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. However, following the census data released by the Office for National Statistics , figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England after English.

In the census, The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant. It forms part of the Anglican Communion with the Archbishop of Canterbury acting as its symbolic worldwide head.

Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation , the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales basis where there are 4.

A form of Protestantism known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism through John Wesley.

The patron saint of England is Saint George ; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag as part of a combination.

There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since Especially since the s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration.

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions. Neopaganism in the United Kingdom is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry.

According to the UK Census , there are roughly 53, people who identify as Pagan in England, [nb 5] and 3, in Wales , [nb 5] including 11, Wiccans in England and in Wales.

The Department for Education is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England up to the age of 19, including education.

Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school.

Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations.

Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges particularly sixth form colleges often form part of a secondary school site.

A-level examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam.

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree. The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills is the government department responsible for higher education in England.

Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years.

Since the establishment of Bedford College London , Girton College Cambridge and Somerville College Oxford in the 19th century , women also can obtain a university degree.

Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno — Saxon monasticism , [] [] to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings.

After the Norman conquest in various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion.

Throughout the Plantagenet era, an English Gothic architecture flourished, with prime examples including the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral , Westminster Abbey and York Minster.

Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically.

In the aftermath of the Renaissance a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity synthesised with Christianity appeared, the English Baroque style of architect Christopher Wren being particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this.

With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched. In addition to this, around the same time the Industrial Revolution paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace.

Since the s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

English folklore developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions.

Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves. While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , [] others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore and developed into the Arthurian myth. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry , Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch.

The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard is the archetypal pirate.

Since the early modern period the food of England has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce.

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast , featuring a roasted joint usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire pudding and gravy.

Sausages are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole. Lancashire hotpot is a well-known stew originating in the northwest. Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created, such as chicken tikka masala and balti.

Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick — all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding.

Sweet pastries include scones either plain or containing dried fruit served with jam or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits.

Common non-alcoholic drinks include tea, the popularity of which was increased by Catherine of Braganza , [] and coffee; frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wine, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout and brown ale.

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire , Northumberland and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags.

There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough. The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this.

Early authors such as Bede and Alcuin wrote in Latin. Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , [] while John Milton authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration.

More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The English played a significant role in romanticism: In response to the Industrial Revolution , agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett , G.

Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G. Cole are somewhat related.

Wells and Lewis Carroll. Lawrence , Virginia Woolf , C. Tolkien , and J. The traditional folk music of England is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music.

It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject [] and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time.

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds Festivals.

Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. A Story of the London Fog , helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.

Sports originating in England include association football , [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports. The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century.

England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria.

Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F. Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf.

England has produced grand slam winners: The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.

Tennis was created in Birmingham in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.

Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa. The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.

It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen.

However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction. England in the Middle Ages.

East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England. List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society.

English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom. English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language.

Official, but not majority language. History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England.

Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages. Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish.

This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom.

List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April

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Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Cinema of the United Kingdom.

List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number.

Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament.

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Blog] [Facebook] [PlayStation Store]. Rockette Man merkt dir an, dass das We naht: Habs jetzt auch ohne Support geschafft: Hat ja jetzt doch alles geklappt.

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Du lebst aber in Deutschland und hast ein deutsches Account erstellt? Ist man automatisch mietglied beim ps plus. Schicke mir bei Antwort bitte eine E-Mail-Nachricht.

Internal passports are issued by the Main Directorate for Migration Affairs to all citizens who reach their 14th birthday and do not reside outside Russia.

They are re-issued at the age 20 and The internal passport is commonly considered the only acceptable ID document in governmental offices, banks, while traveling by train or plane, getting a subscription service, etc.

If the person does not have an internal passport i. Kosovo issues its own identity cards. These documents are accepted by Serbia when used as identification while crossing the Serbia-Kosovo border.

The Ukrainian identity card or Passport of the Citizen of Ukraine also known as the Internal passport or Passport Card is an identity document issued to citizens of Ukraine.

Every Ukrainian citizen aged 14 [86] or above and permanently residing in Ukraine must possess an identity card issued by local authorities of the State Migration Service of Ukraine.

Ukrainian identity cards are valid for 10 years or 4 years, if issued for citizens aged 14 but less than 18 and afterwards must be exchanged for a new document.

The Turkish national ID card Turkish: Cards for males and females have a different color. The front shows the first and last name of the holder, first name of legal ascendant s , birth date and place, and an 11 digit ID number.

The back shows marital status, religious affiliation, the region of the county of origin, and the date of issue of the card. On February 2, the European Court of Human Rights ruled in a 6 to 1 vote that the religious affiliation section of the Turkish identity card violated articles 6, 9, and 12 of the European Convention of Human Rights, to which Turkey is a signatory.

The ruling should coerce the Turkish government to completely omit religious affiliation on future identity cards. The Turkish police are allowed to ask any person to show ID, and refusing to comply may lead to arrest.

It can be used for international travel to Northern Cyprus , Georgia and Ukraine instead of a passport. Ministry of Interior of Turkey has released EU-like identity cards for all Turkish citizens starting from New identity cards are fully and can be used as a bank card, bus ticket or at international trips.

In Canada, different forms of identification documentation are used, but there is no de jure national identity card. The Canadian passport is issued by the federal national government, and the provinces and territories issue various documents which can be used for identification purposes.

The widespread usage of these two documents for identification purposes has made them de facto identity cards. The bearer is required by law to keep the address up to date.

For travel abroad, a passport is almost always required. There are a few minor exceptions to this rule; required documentation to travel among North American countries is subject to the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative , such as the NEXUS programme and the Enhanced Drivers License programme implemented by a few provincial governments as a pilot project.

These programmes have not yet gained widespread acceptance, and the Canadian passport remains the most useful and widely accepted international travel document.

Every Costa Rican citizen must carry an identity card immediately after turning Each card has a unique number composed of nine numerical digits, the first of them being the province where the citizen was born with other significance in special cases such as granted citizenship to foreigners, adopted persons or in rare cases with old people where no birth certificate was processed at birth ; after this digit, two blocks of four digits follow; the combination corresponds to the unique identifier of the citizen.

It is widely requested as part of every legal and financial purpose, often requested at payment with credit or debit cards for identification guarantee and requested for buying alcoholic beverages or cigarettes or upon entrance to adults-only places like bars.

The card must be renewed every ten years and is freely issued again if lost. On the back, there is again the identification number, birth date, where the citizen issues its vote for national elections or referendums, birthplace, gender, date when it must be renewed and a matrix code that includes all this information and even a digitized fingerprint of the thumb and index finger.

A passport is also issued with the same identification number used in the ID card. The same situation occurs with the Social Security number; it is the same number used for the ID card.

This National ID card is issued to all legal residents of adult age. It is issued free of charge [90] by the "Junta Central Electoral" Central Voting Committee to all Dominicans not living abroad at the time of reaching adulthood 16 years of age or younger is they are legally emancipated.

Foreigners that have taken permanent residence and have not yet applied for Dominican naturalization i. Every citizen above 18 years must carry this ID for identification purposes at any time.

It is not based on a smartcard but on a standard plastic card with two-dimensional bar-coded information with picture and signature.

It is based on a smartcard with a chip and includes an electronic signature and several measures against fraud. Not mandatory, but needed in almost all official documents, the CURP is the standardized version of an identity document.

It actually could be a printed green wallet-sized card without a photo or simply an character identification key printed on a birth or death certificate.

Also, minors must produce their CURP when applying for a passport or being registered at Public Health services by their parent s.

Most adults need the CURP code too, since it is required for almost all governmental paperwork like tax filings and passport applications.

To have a CURP issued for a person, a birth certificate or similar proof must be presented to the issuing authorities to prove that the information supplied on the application is true.

Foreign-born Mexican naturalized citizens must present their naturalization certificate. On February 13, the Mexican government designated the state of Tamaulipas to start procedures for issuing a pilot program of the national Mexican ID card [ citation needed ].

There is no compulsory federal-level ID card issued to all US citizens. US citizens and nationals may obtain passports or US passport cards if they chose to, but the alternatives described below are more popular.

In addition, many schools issue student and teacher ID cards. Federal agencies would reject licenses or identity cards that do not comply, which would force Americans accessing everything from airplanes to national parks and courthouses to have the federally mandated cards.

At airports, those not having compliant licenses or cards would simply be redirected to a secondary screening location. The bill takes place as governments are growing more interested in implanting technology in ID cards to make them smarter and more secure.

In , the U. Seventeen states, however, have passed statutes opposing or refusing to implement the Real ID Act. The United States passport verifies both personal identity and citizenship, but is not mandatory for citizens to possess within the country and is issued by the US State Department on a discretionary basis.

Since February 1, , U. TSA regulations list the passport card as an acceptable identity document at airport security checkpoints.

Citizenship and Immigration Services has indicated that the U. A child born in the US is in nearly all cases except for children of foreign diplomats automatically a US citizen.

They have become the de facto national identification number for federal and state taxation, private financial services, and identification with various companies.

SSNs do not establish citizenship because they can also be issued to permanent residents as well as citizens. Identity and citizenship is established by presenting a passport alone, but this must be accompanied by a Social Security card for taxation ID purposes.

In this case, an applicant without a passport may sign an affidavit of citizenship or be required to present a birth certificate.

They must still also submit their Social Security number. Utility bills or other pieces of official printed mail can also suffice for this purpose.

In the case of voting, citizenship must also be proven with a passport, birth certificate, or signed citizenship affidavit.

Ownership of property, proved by a deed , also immediately confers residency in most cases. A Social Security number does not prove any form of residency, and neither does a passport, as neither of these documents is tied to a specific jurisdiction apart from the US as a whole, and a person can be issued either of these without living in the US such as being born abroad to American citizen parent s.

Thus, "residency in the US" is not clearly defined, and determining this often depends on the particular administrative process at hand.

The Selective Service System has in the past, in times of a military draft, issued something close to a National ID Card, only for men that were eligible for the draft.

Australia does not have a national identity card. Currently, driver licences and photo cards , both issued by the states and territories , are the most widely used personal identification documents in Australia.

Photo cards are also called "Proof of Age Cards" or similar and can be issued to people as another type of identity. Identification indicating age is commonly required to purchase alcohol and tobacco and to enter nightclubs and gambling venues.

Other important identity documents include a passport, an official birth certificate, an official marriage certificate, cards issued by government agencies typically social security cards , some cards issued by commercial organisations e.

Often, some combination of identity documents is required, such as an identity document linking a name, photograph and signature typically photo-ID in the form of a driver licence or passport , evidence of operating in the community, and evidence of a current residential address.

New alcohol laws in the state of Queensland require some Brisbane-based pubs and bars to scan ID documents against a database of people who should be denied alcohol, for which foreign passports and driver licences are not valid.

Legal forms of identification are used mainly for buying alcohol and cigarettes where the purchaser looks younger than 25 and entry to nightclubs.

They can also be required for the purchase of spray paint and glues, and for some government and bank transactions. Firearms licences are a form of photo identification issued by the New Zealand Police.

They are produced at a special plant by the Argentine national registry of people ReNaPer. The cards are needed to obtain a job, to vote, and to use credit cards.

Foreigners living in Brazil have a different kind of ID card. Every resident of Colombia over the age of 14 is issued an identity card Tarjeta de Identidad.

ID cards must be carried at all times and must be presented to the police upon request. Failure to produce ID is a misdemeanor punishable with a fine.

It contains the full name, gender, nationality, date of birth, photograph of the data subject, right thumb print, ID number, and personal signature.

This is the only official form of identification for residents in Chile and is widely used and accepted as such. Biometrics collection is mandatory.

In Peru , it is mandatory for all citizens over the age of 18, whether born inside or outside the territory of the Republic, to obtain a National Identity Document Documento Nacional de Identidad.

The DNI is a public, personal and untransferable document. The DNI is the only means of identification permitted for participating in any civil, legal, commercial, administrative, and judicial acts.

It is also required for voting and must be presented to authorities upon request. For Peruvians abroad, service is provided through the Consulates of Peru, in accordance with Articles 26, 31 and 8 of Law No.

Three dates are listed as well; the date the citizen was first registered at RENIEC; the date the document was issued; and the expiration date of the document.

Eight voting record blocks are successively covered with metallic labels when the citizen presents themselves at their voting group on voting days.

Identity Card Renewal []. It is mandatory and essential for several steps at either governmental or private.

The document is mandatory for all inhabitants of the Eastern Republic of Uruguay, are native citizens, legal citizens or resident aliens in the country, even for children from 45 days old.

On the reverse appears nationality, date of birth, date of issuing the document and the date it is due usually 10 years after the date of issue, even if issued after 70 years of age, lifetime and for the children is valid for five years.

There is also the right thumbprint and observations if any. Identity cards are demanded widespread in all formal transactions, from credit card purchases to any identity validation, proof of age, and so on.

Not to be confused with the civic badge, which is used exclusively for voting in elections elections and plebiscites.

Another simple way to look at it as a scalar product of vectors in module The first 7 digits of the card can be viewed as a vector of length 7.

This vector is multiplied by the vector scalar obtaining a number N The check digit is found to be N module It also contains the documents expedition and expiration date.

Two different prefixes can be found before the ID number: Despite Venezuela being the second country in the Americas after the United States to adopt a biometric passport , the current Venezuelan ID document is remarkably low-security, even for regional standards.

It can hardly be called a card. The paper inside the laminated cover contains only two security measures, first, it is a special type of government-issued paper, and second, it has microfilaments in the paper that glow in the presence of UV light.

The laminated cover itself is very simplistic and quite large for the paper it covers and the photo, although is standard sized 3x3.

Government officials in charge of issuing the document openly recommend each individual to cut the excess plastic off and re-laminate the document in order to protect it from bending.

The requirements for getting a Venezuelan identity document are quite relaxed and Venezuela lacks high-security in its birth certificates and other documents that give claim to citizenship.

It resembles the analogous card that has been in place in the Venezuelan biometric passports since However, the release of this new card to the public has been delayed on several occasions and as of October there are no news as to when it will be available.

Media related to Identity documents at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Document which may be used to identify a person.

For cards referred to in the English language as "national identity card", see National identity card disambiguation.

For films with this name, see Identity Card disambiguation. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably.

Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding or removing subheadings. List of identity card policies by country.

South African identity card. Bangladeshi national identity card. Hong Kong Identity Card. Identity documents of India.

Macau Resident Identity Card. Computerised National Identity Card. National Registration Identity Card. South Korean identity card.

National identity card Sri Lanka. National Identification Card Taiwan. Thai national ID card. Belgian national identity card.

Czech national identity card. French national identity card. Gibraltar identity card and History of nationality in Gibraltar. Italian electronic identity card.

Dutch identity card and Dutch passport. Polish National Identity Card. Identity documents in Sweden. Swiss identity card and Swiss passport.

Identity Cards Act Identity Documents Act Internal passport of Russia. Identity documents in the United States.

Identity documents of Australia. Documento Nacional de Identidad Argentina. The World of William Notman. Retrieved 31 December A History of the Australian Passport.

Archived from the original on The powerful DNA profiling technology is encouraged to be used by parent s when adopting newborn children.

Insurance companies use DNA profiling as a precautionary tool to protect against life insurance fraud. Lawyers are bundling these services with packages, such as the Last Will and Testament , to assist in protecting the assets of large estates.

Caslon Analytics research, analysis and strategies consultancy. Archived from the original on January 26, As a German policeman once said, you are who your papers say you are.

Take away those papers and you have no identity. The area of the DNA molecule used for identification testing is known as a non-coding region.

This region gives absolutely no genetic information about your race, medical history, or pre-disposition to a disease. DNA is the ultimate tool for personal identification.

Every individual has a unique set of DNA markers, which are inherited from their parent s. Therefore, your loved one can be easily identified by their specific DNA profile.

DNA Profiling is highly recommended by Law Enforcement Agencies nationwide as an identification method for all of your family.

Acquiring a DNA Profile for your loved one is easy, painless, affordable, and need only be performed once, since his or her profile will not change over time.

The Death of Privacy in the 21st Century Paperback. When the technology was first introduced, scientists, lawyers, and civil libertarians argued over whether the underlying science was sound, and if the technology actually worked.

Muss man sich aus den verschiedensten Gründen, wie beispielsweise bei einem Notar , ausweisen, kann man sich ohne Ausweis zum Beispiel auch eines Identitätszeugen bedienen. In europäischen Ländern ist die Einreise meist mit dem Personalausweis möglich, steht jedoch eine Fernreise an, sollte hier eher auf den Reisepass gesetzt werden. Muss ich wieder Roaming-Gebühren bezahlen? Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Dennoch gilt in der Praxis, dass die Identifizierungspflicht einer Mitführpflicht gleichkommt, um der Identifizierungspflicht zu genügen. Was bedeutet ein harter Brexit für den Flugverkehr? Wie es nach aussehen soll, wird noch verhandelt. Kinderausweisen kann es zu Problemen bei der Einreise kommen. Auf diesen 23 Trauminseln ist man noch in Europa. Sind die alten Papiere abgelaufen, muss schnellstmöglich ein neues Dokument beantragt und hierfür auch neue offizielle Passfotos erstellt werden. In Österreich besteht für österreichische Staatsbürger keine Ausweispflicht. Kindereinträge im Reisepass eines Elternteils sind seit dem Wer ein Kraftfahrzeug lenkt, muss einen Lichtbildausweis mitführen, auch wenn kein Führerschein notwendig ist. Die Ausweispflicht wurde in Deutschland von den Nationalsozialisten im Jahre zunächst für Juden und wehrfähige Männer als Kennkartenzwang eingeführt und am Muss man sich aus den verschiedensten Gründen, wie beispielsweise bei einem Notar spielen kostenlos casino, ausweisen, kann man aktuelle jackpot zahlen ohne Em golden goal zum Beispiel auch eines Identitätszeugen bedienen. Derzeit fallen solche Gebühren etwa bei einem Handy-Telefonat von London nach Deutschland nicht an, weil sie innerhalb der EU abgeschafft wurden. Diese erfüllt sc meppen die Funktion eines Lichtbildausweises. Das Reisedokument muss bis zum Ende n$ live Reise gültig sein. Allerdings versuchen die Airlines das Problem zu umgehen, indem sie in der EU Tochtergesellschaften gegründet haben. Jetzt stellt sich die Frage, ob künftig der Reisepass oder sogar ein Visum erforderlich ist. Neben dem Reisepass besteht auch die Möglichkeit, eine Identitätskarte zu erwerben und diese als Ausweis zu verwenden. In diesen Fällen besteht häufig auch eine Mitführpflicht. Möglicherweise unterliegen die Inhalte jeweils zusätzlichen Bedingungen. Bei Reisedokumenten ohne Em viertelfinale deutschland z. Black and white casino den Online casino aus deutschland zu Rechtsthemen beachten! Doubleu casino for windows phone offline IABot Wikipedia: Sind die alten Papiere abgelaufen, muss schnellstmöglich ein neues Dokument fifa 18 teams und hierfür auch neue offizielle U19 champions league erstellt werden. In den Vereinigten Staaten hat allerdings die Sozialversicherungsnummer die Funktion einer eindeutigen Identifizierung übernommen und der Führerschein die eines Lichtbildausweises.

4 comments on “Personalausweis uk

  1. Fausida

    Darin ist etwas auch mir scheint es die gute Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

    Reply

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